WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

The need for conservation of wildlife has now become a necessity in our country and all over the world. Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animals’ species, but grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. The global wildlife population decreased by 52% between 1970 – 2014, according to the world wildlife fund report.

Animals living in the wild, experience many harms due to the causes, which are either complete or partially by nature. Wildlife, like trees is also a domestic asset that not only helps to maintain the ecological balance but also benefits from financial recreational and aesthetic points of perspective.

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild species and their habitats in order to prevent species from going extinct. Major threats to wildlife include habitat destruction/degradation/fragmentation, overexploitation, poaching, pollution and climate change. The IUCN estimates that 27,000 species of the ones assessed are at risk for extinction. Expanding to all existing species, a 2019 UN report on biodiversity put this estimate even higher at a million species. It’s also being acknowledged that an increasing number of ecosystems on Earth containing endangered species are disappearing. To address these issues, there have been both national and international governmental efforts to preserve Earth’s wildlife. Prominent conservation agreements include the 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).[1][2] There are also numerous nongovernmental organizations (NGO’s) dedicated to conservation such as the Nature Conservancy, World Wildlife Fund, and Conservation International.

Humans use plants and animals for nearly every facet of daily life as food, clothing, medicine etc.  Wildlife exploitation is responsible for 37% of the loss in wildlife biodiversity. Deforestation tears down trees and large plants, stripping animals of shelter and food. Conservation means to prevent waste of resources. Wildlife conservation can be defined as the practice of protecting animals, species and their habitats.

Conservation is important because the Earth’s living  resources are valuable. Generally, we apply wildlife conservation to species that are in danger becoming extinct by unnatural causes. Wildlife preservation doesn’t imply blanket protection for all species fauna and flora; rather, it means adequate, judicious control over multiplication of crops and animals that communicate to provide a suitable atmosphere for the man whose life is at risk today.

Conservation genetics studies genetic phenomena that impact the conservation of a species. Most conservation efforts focus on ensuring population growth but genetic diversity also greatly affect species survival. High genetic diversity increases survival because it means greater capacity to adapt to future environmental changes.[4] Meanwhile, effects associated with low genetic diversity, such as inbreeding depression and loss of diversity from genetic drift, often decrease species survival by reducing the species’ capacity to adapt or by increasing the frequency of genetic problems. Though not always the case, certain species are under threat because they have very low genetic diversity. As such, the best conservation action would be to restore their genetic diversity.

Causes of Extinction of Wildlife.

  • Loss of habitat.
  • Loss of mobility.
  • Limitation of expansion of vegetation.
  • International trade. The trade of some items of wild origin such as animals fur, bones, tusks, musk or as orchids, medicinal plants resulted in the decline of wild animals and plants.

While the world’s nations must be very specific in terms of wildlife conservation, the amount of wildlife fund is a global organization that does a praiseworthy job of encouraging protection. National agencies are also involved in wildlife conservation.

The most important wildlife conservation organizations are

  1. The Nature Conservancy: – This works with local communities, businesses and individuals to protect over 100 million acres of land around the globe. The goal of this organization is to preserve entire wild life communities along with their rich species diversity, a holistic approach that’s vital to the health of our planet.
  2. The World Wildlife Fund: – This works with multilateral and bilateral agencies to promote sustainable development in the world’s poorest countries.

This organization’s official mascot is the Giant Panda, probably the world’s most famous near-extinct mammal.

  1. The Natural Resources Defense Council: – This is an environmental action organizations consisting of over 300 lawyers, scientists and other professionals that commands a membership of about 1.3 million people worldwide.
  2. The Sierra club: – This is a grassroots organization that works to protect ecological communities, encourage smart energy solutions and create an enduring legacy for America’s wilderness, was founded by naturalist John Muir in 1892.
  3. The Wildlife Conservation Society: – This society supports zoos and aquariums, while also promoting environmental education and conservation of wildlife populations and habitats.
  4. Oceana: – The largest non-profit organizations devoted exclusively to the world’s oceans, this work to shield fish, marine mammals, and other aquatic life from the deleterious effects of pollution and industrial fishing.
  5. Conservation International: – This organization’s most impressive calling cards is its ongoing Biodiversity Hotspots project.
  6. The National Audubon Society: – This organization’s monthly publication, Audubon Magazine, is a great way to encourage your kid’s environmental consciousness.
  7. The Jane Goodall Institute: – The chimpanzees of Africa share 99% of their genome with human beings, which is why their brutal treatment at the hands of ‘’ civilization’’ is a cause for shame.
  8. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds: – This was founded in 1889 to oppose the use of exotic feathers ins the fashion industry.

These days we are hearing some news about the wildlife animals in country and all over the world.  As,

  1. For Sri lanka’s dwindling leopards, wire snare are the leading killer: – Snares are the leading cause of death among Sri Lanka’s leopards, accounting for 42 recorded deaths in the past 10 years.
  2. Rare Black Leopard recently rescued from a snare dies: – The rare black leopard recently rescued from a snare in an estate in Nallaththanniya, a remote village in central province, has died.
  3. Elephant in the India dies after possibly eating fruit stuffed with explosives: – The explosion fractured the bones and caused a lot damage to the mouth. The animal could not eat and became weak, and then died. She was pregnant at that time.
  4. Sixth mass extinction of wildlife accelerating quicker than expected: – The sixth mass extinction in underway and it is accelerating threatening the collapse of civilization.

There are some books about the wildlife conservation

01.Concepts in wildlife management: – By-  B.B. Hosetti, Daya publishing House, 2005.

02.Conservation, protection, and Propagation of Endangered species of fish and wildlife: – By – United states, congress, Senatte.

03.Wildlife Conservation in Sri Lanka: – By – C.G. Uragoda

04.Ethics on the Ark: – Edited by – Bryan. G, Norton, Michael, Terry, Elizabeth.

In the past, due to the irrational use of the Earth’s natural and biotic resources, most wildlife was demolished after recovery. It is our immediate responsibility to safeguard ecosystem’s natural splendor and to develop a system coexistence with every living creature on earth.

Let’s preserve and conserve the nature, so that we can save the wildlife and the future generations.

Reference 
01.www.worldatlas.com
02.www.quora.com
03.https://zooatlanta.org
04.Mongabay.com
05.www.dwc.gov.lk
06.https://defenders.org
07.https://a-z-animals.com
08.Sewee Wildlife Association
09.National wildlife Federation
10.Nature.org

Jeyathasan Thuvaraka

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